Charles Dollard

World War II and its immediate aftermath were a relatively inactive period for Carnegie Corporation. When Charles Dollard, who had joined the staff in 1939 as Keppel's assistant, became president in 1948, the foundation deepened its interest in the social sciences, particularly the study of human behavior, and entered the field of international affairs.

At Dollard's urging, the Corporation heavily supported quantitative, "objective" social science research modeled after the hard sciences and helped to diffuse the ideas throughout leading universities. At this time, the Corporation became a leading proponent of standardized testing in the schools as a means for determining academic merit irrespective of social or economic background. Among other initiatives, it helped to broker establishment of the Educational Testing Service in 1947. In recognition of the United States' rising need for scholarly and policy expertise in international affairs, the Corporation also launched, with the Ford Foundation, foreign area studies programs in colleges and universities, helping to establish and sustain the Russian Research Center at Harvard University. Following Afrikaner political ascendance in 1951, the Corporation ceased grantmaking in South Africa for more than two decades, turning its attention to the development of universities in East and West Africa.

Text courtesy of Carnegie Collections at the Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Columbia University