Glossary of Terms

Bobbin boy: a person who operates a spindle on which yarn or thread is wound in a cotton factory.
(Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary)

Coke: the residual of coal left after destructive distillation and used as fuel.
(Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary)

Grantmaking foundation: a non-governmental, nonprofit organization with an endowment (donated by an individual, family, or corporation) and a program managed by its own trustees or directors. Grantmaking foundations are established to maintain or aid social, educational, religious, or other charitable activities serving the common welfare, primarily through the making of grants.
(Foundation Center)

Immigrant: a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence.
(Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary)

Imperialist: the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence.
(Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary)

Meritocratic: a system in which the talented are chosen and moved on the basis of their achievement.
(Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary)

a philanthropist is someone who practices philanthropy; one who loves mankind, and seeks to promote the good of others.
(Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary)

comes from the Greek word philanthropos: love of people.
The effort to increase the well being of human kind, as by charitable donations. A charitable activity or institution.
 (Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary)

Pinkerton Agents: The Pinkerton Detective Agency, forerunner to the FBI, was the inspiration of a Scottish immigrant by the name of Allan Pinkerton. At a time when the nation's towns and cities did not have large numbers of law enforcement bureaus, Pinkerton's agents took on the most difficult assignments; cases ranged from financial and property thefts to government overthrows to murder. (

Telegrapher: a person who uses a telegraph, which is an apparatus for communication at a distance by coded signals.
(Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary)


Charity and Philanthropy are often used interchangeably, but they really are different sides of the same coin.

Charity, which is derived from the Latin word carus, meaning dear, has a long religious history; for Christians, Jews and Muslims, for example, it has meant giving immediate relief to human suffering without passing judgement on those who suffer.

Philanthropy has a more secular history and comes from the Greek word philanthropos, meaning love of mankind. The Greek meaning carried over to English and, for the longest time, philanthropy referred only to a caring disposition toward one's fellow man. Now the word is used to describe generosity that promotes human progress in any field. While the term philanthropist may conjure up generous millionaires and billionaires, the vast majority of gifts of time and money comes from average American families.